人生の軌跡を綴っていきます


by yu-fen-sun
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Business Ethics : Compatitive Pressures on Ethical Principles

Business Ethics第二弾です。
今日は、Competitive Pressures (競争圧力)についてです。

Competitive Pressures (競争圧力) on Ethical Principles (倫理原則)

American society places a great emphasis on success, which in and of itself is not a bad thing. It is perfectly justifiable (正当化できる、もっともな) to want to make full use of one's talents and provide for oneself and one's family. People involved in the world of business, however, often face situations in which advancement—whether in position, influence, or financial stature (経済的成長)—can be gained, but only by hurting other individuals or groups. Small business owners are confronted with these choices even more often than other people of the business world because of the greater degree of autonomy in decisionmaking that they often enjoy. Moreover, the ethical decisions of small business owners are likely to impact far greater numbers of people than are the ethical decisions of that business owner's employees. Very often, an employee's ethical choices (to claim credit (功績を主張する) for the work done by another, to falsify number of hours worked, etc.) have an impact on a relatively small number of people, usually co-workers or his or her employer. The ethical choices of business owners, however—whether to use inferior materials in preparing goods for customers, whether to place employees in a poor HMO (保険維持機構), whether to lay off a dozen workers because of careless personal financial expenditures, etc.—often have far more wide-ranging repercussions (反動).

Indeed, the pressure to make morally compromised (妥協された) choices on behalf of the company you lead can be quite powerful, whether the enterprise is a lone clothing store or a regional chain of record stores, especially when you feel the health and vitality of your enterprise may be at stake (危機に瀕して). As Mary Scott observed served in the Utne Reader, "companies that go public, are sold to outside investors, merge with other businesses, and feel the increased competition of businesses based less on values increasingly face an unnerving (気を転倒させる、狼狽させる) conflict between their social values and their bottom line."

Some business analysts contend (強く主張する) that American businesses—and their leaders—are more prone to (~する傾向がある) ignore ethics as a part of a decisionmaking process than ever before. Even some "good citizen" efforts undertaken by businesses are dismissed as evidence of increased marketing savvy (手腕、抜け目の無さ) rather than demonstrations of true devotion to ethical business standards. Other critics of modern American business practices grant that good citizen efforts, while laudable (称賛に値する), are all too often aberrations (逸脱、例外的状況). As David Korten wrote in Business Ethics, "all this focus on measures like recycling, cleaning up emissions, contributing to local charities, or providing day care sounds noble, but it's little more than fiddling (くだらない) at the margins of (~の側に) a deeply dysfunctional system." Korten insists that the current widespread emphasis on maximizing financial returns to shareholders—an emphasis that starts with multinational companies but filters down to smaller enterprises as well—makes it "all but (ほとんど) impossible to manage for social responsibility."

Some economists and ethicists contend that such emphases on profitability are, in and of themselves, evidence of a set of legitimate ethical principles. Economist Milton Friedman criticized those who insisted that executives and business owners had a social responsibility beyond serving the interests or their stockholders or members, saying that such views showed "a fundamental misconception (根本的な誤解) of the character and nature of a free economy. In such an economy, there is one and only one social responsibility of business—to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits, so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition, without deception (ごまかし) or fraud (詐欺)." Some observers even argue that this pursuit of financial gain ultimately serves the larger community, albeit unintentionally (意図的でなかったにしても). Economist James McKie wrote that "the primary goal and motivating force for business organizations is profit. The firm attempts to make as large a profit as it can …. Profits are kept to reasonable or appropriate levels by market competition, which leads the firm pursuing its own self-interest to an end that is not part of its conscious intention: enhancement of the public welfare." Others, of course, vigorously dispute such interpretations of capitalism and corporate duties as an outright abdication (放棄) of responsibility for actions undertaken in pursuit of the best possible bottom line. Such philosophies, they argue, provide people with a veneer of (うわべだけの) ethical cover to engage in everything from ruthless (無慈悲な) downsizing to environmental degradation (悪化、劣化) to misleading advertising.
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-11 01:31 | 英語関連