2009年 09月 01日 ( 2 )

Spraying for Bugs? Check the Time

Spraying for Bugs? Check the Time

Scientists have found that the effectiveness of some insecticides (殺虫剤) depends on what time of day they're used. The results may also have implications for how people respond to medicines and to toxic chemicals.
When is a good time to kill a fly? We don't normally think about it, but researchers at Oregon State University say the time of day does matter. Jaga Giebultowicz and her colleagues tested four insecticides to see if their effect on fruit flies (ミバエ) changed at different times of the day. Timing made a big difference for one bug spray.

"You could kill the same number of insects but with one-third of the pesticide applied at one time of day versus another," Giebultowicz says.

Killing time

Another insecticide was almost twice as effective depending on the time. Dusk (夕暮れ) appears to be the best time to spray, "but, of course, it's hard -- you don't want to spray your orchard (果樹園) when it's dark," she adds.

However, the later in the day you spray, Giebultowicz says, the less pesticide you'll need to use -- at least with some chemicals.

Fruit flies produce a number of enzymes (酵素) that break down toxic chemicals and protect them from the poison. The researchers found the amount of several of these enzymes was controlled by the fruit fly's biological clock, rising and falling in sync with (~と同調して) the sun.

Many plants naturally produce chemicals that are toxic to insects, and Giebultowicz suggests the fruit flies' biological rhythm may boost these enzymes at the best time to detoxify (解毒する) the chemicals without wasting the insect's resources.

Not all of the insects' detox enzymes (解毒酵素) are cyclical (周期的な). Time didn't affect how the flies reacted to the other two chemicals Giebultowicz's lab tested. And they only tested fruit flies -- other insects may respond differently.

Beyond bugs

But Giebultowicz adds that the implications of her research extend far beyond the insect world.

"Biological clocks in insects and in humans are similar genetically," she says. So that means we may respond differently at different times of day when we're exposed to insecticides and other toxic chemicals; and it could also mean that medications may work better or worse depending on the time.

Giebultowicz says future studies should look into (~を調査する、研究する) how both people and insects respond to chemicals over the course of the day. When it comes to flies, though, the fly swatter (ハエ叩き) appears equally effective morning, noon, or night.

The research appears in the July issue of the journal PLoS One.

面白い研究結果ですね。
人類にも応用されると素晴らしいと思います。
薬が一番効く時間・・・
食前や食後は考えた事はありますが
時間まで考えた事はあまり無かったですね。
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-01 22:22 | 英語関連
Historic sea change at polls product of frustrated public

For better or worse, history has been made.

The Democratic Party of Japan was headed Sunday evening to winning more than 300 Lower House seats, an unprecedented landslide (前代未聞の大勝) for any political party in the postwar era.

The DPJ's victory will fundamentally change the power structure in a country ruled almost uninterrupted by the Liberal Democratic Party for the last 54 years.

Experts say the often politically complacent (政治的無関心な) public, frustrated by recent economic woes (悲哀) and grim prospects (暗い展望) for Japan's long-term future, finally decided it was time to give the opposition a chance.

The DPJ's victory is widely seen as public retribution (懲罰) against the LDP, not outright (率直な) support for the DPJ's election pledges of fighting the bureaucracy and promises to dole out money (少しづつお金を分け与える) to urban (都会の) voters and rural farmers.

According to an Aug. 18-19 poll by the Asahi Shimbun, 54 percent of 60,277 respondents said they were "very interested" in the election and 57 percent said they would vote for the DPJ in the proportional representation segment.

But only 24 percent of all respondents said they believe Japanese politics would "tread the right course (正しい道のりを歩む)" if a change of government (政権交代)takes place, while 56 percent said they expected no major change in politics regardless of the election outcome.

民主党はこれからの仕事で国民の不安を払拭するしか無いですね。
言葉よりも実践で国民の期待に応えて欲しいと思います。
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-01 00:28 | 英語関連