2009年 09月 02日 ( 4 )

Goods and Services

It takes land, labor, and capital that are used by an entrepreneur to produce goods and services that will ultimately be used to satisfy our wants. Goods are tangible, meaning they are something that can be seen or touched. The production of goods requires using limited resources to produce in order to satisfy wants. An example might be a farmer who grows grain. The farmer uses farm equipment manufactured from resources; ground is a natural resource that is used to grow the grain; and because the growth of grain depletes the nutrients (栄養分を激減させる) in the soil, the farmer must use fertilizers (肥料) to restore (元の状態に戻す、回復させる) the nutrients. Limited resources are used to produce natural or chemical fertilizers, but they are necessary for crop production. Water might be used to irrigate the crop and enhance production. When the crop is ready for harvest, the farmer uses additional resources to complete the process—equipment, gasoline, labor, and so on—which results in a good that can be used or sold for use by others.

Services are provided in numerous ways and are an intangible activity. There is no doubt that one can often see someone providing a service, but the service is not something that someone can pick up and take home to use. An example of a service is a ride in a taxi through a crowded city. It takes resources for the owner or driver to provide the service, and a passenger is consciously aware of riding in a taxi. When the ride is completed and the provider has been paid, the passenger doesn't have anything tangible to hold except the receipt. However, resources have been used to provide the service. The automobile used as the cab, the fuel used to operate the cab, and the labor of the driver are all examples of resources being used to provide a service that will satisfy a want.

It is important to understand that because goods and services utilize resources that are limited, goods and services are also scarce. Scarcity results when the demand for a good or service is greater than its supply. Remember that society has unlimited wants but scarce resources. It is scarcity, then, that causes consumers to have to make choices. If individuals can't have everything they want, they must decide which of the goods and services are most important and which they can do without.

言っている事は当たり前なのですが、
上記の英文の内容は経済学の根本の部分です。
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-02 23:13 | 英語関連
Resources

Economic resources, often called factors of production (生産要素), are divided into four general categories. They are land, labor (sometimes referred to as human resources), capital, and entrepreneurship.

Land.
Land describes the ground that might be used to build a structure such as a factory, school, home, or church, but it means much more than that. Land is also the term used for the resources that come from the land. Trees are produced by the land and are used for lumber, firewood, paper, and numerous other products, so they are referred to as land. Minerals that come from the ground, such as oil that is used to make gasoline or to lubricate automobile engines, or gold that is used to make jewelry, or wheat that is grown on the land and is used in the production of bread and other products, or sheep that are raised for the wool they produce that is used to make sweaters are all described as land.

Labor (Human Resources).
Labor is the general category of the human effort that is used for the production of goods and services. This includes physical labor, such as harvesting trees for lumber, drilling for oil or mining (採掘する) for gold, growing wheat for bread, or raising the sheep that produce wool for a sweater. In addition to physical labor, there is mental labor, which is necessary for such activities as planning the best ways to harvest trees and making decisions about which trees to harvest. Labor is also involved when a doctor or surgeon (外科医) analyzes and diagnoses (診断する) (mental labor) before performing a medical procedure, then performs the procedure (physical labor).

Capital.
Capital is input that is often viewed in two ways, much as is labor. Capital might be viewed as human capital—the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that humans possess that allow them to produce. The other type of capital is physical capital, which includes buildings, machinery, tools, and other items that are used to produce goods and service. Traditionally, physical capital has been a prerequisite (前提条件) for human capital; however, because of rapid changes in technology, today human capital is less dependent on physical capital.

Entrepreneurship.
One special form of human capital that is important in an economic setting is entrepreneurship (often thought of as the fourth factor of production). Entrepreneurial abilities are needed to improve what we have and to create new goods and services. An entrepreneur is one who brings together all the resources of land, labor, and capital that are needed to produce a better product or service. In the process of doing this, the entrepreneur is willing to assume the risk of success and failure.

Many people associate entrepreneurship with creating or owning a new business. That is one definition of entrepreneurship but not the only one. An entrepreneur might create a new market for something that already exists or push the use of a natural resource to new limits in order to maximize efficiency and minimize consumption.
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-02 22:57 | 英語関連
Wants, Needs, and Scarcity

As a society, and in economic terms, people have unlimited wants; however, resources are scarce. Don't confuse wants and needs (要求と必要性). Individuals often want what they don't need. In the automobile example used above, someone might want to drive a large luxury car, but a small pickup truck may be more suited to the purchaser's needs if he or she must have a vehicle for hauling furniture (家具を運送する). Economic decisions must be made.

A resource is scarce when there is not enough of it to satisfy human wants. And human wants are endless. Because of unlimited wants and limited resources to satisfy those wants, economic decisions must be made. This problem of scarcity (limited resources) must be addressed, which leads to economics and economic problems.

要求と必要性についてです。
限りある供給源の中でいかに効果的な経済決定をしていくのか・・・・
これが経済学を学ぶ上で一番重要なcoreの部分なのです。
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-02 21:57 | 英語関連
今日は、経済学について思い出してみます。
と言うのも、先セメスターでMacroeconomicsを履修したので
折角だし少し思い出してみようと思いました。

Study of the economy. Classic economics concentrates on how the forces of supply and demand allocate scarce (十分でない、乏しい) product and service resources. Macroeconomics studies a nation or the world's economy as a whole, using data about inflation, unemployment and industrial production (工業生産) to understand the past and predict the future. Microeconomics studies the behavior of specific sectors (部門) of the economy, such as companies, industries, or households. Over the years, various schools of economic thought have gained prominence (名をあげる、有名になる), including Keynesian Economics, Monetarism and Supply-Side Economics.

マクロ経済学とミクロ経済学の大まかな内容でした。

Economics is often described as a body of knowledge or study that discusses how a society tries to solve the human problems of unlimited wants (無限の要求) and scarce resources (不十分な供給源). Because economics is associated with human behavior, the study of economics is classified as a social science (社会科学). Because economics deals with human problems, it cannot be an exact science and one can easily find differing views (異なる視点) and descriptions of economics. In this discussion, the focus is an overview of the elements that constitute the study of economics, that is, wants, needs, scarcity, resources, goods and services, economic choice, and the laws of supply and demand.

Every person is involved with making economic decisions every day of his or her life. This occurs when one decides whether to cook a meal at home or go to a restaurant to eat, or when one decides between purchasing a new luxury car or a low-priced pickup truck. People make economic decisions when they decide whether to rent or purchase housing or where they should attend college.

細かい経済学の内容は、
また追って説明していきますね。
by yu-fen-sun | 2009-09-02 21:44 | 英語関連